vitex rotundifolia hawaii

It naturally grows compactly, sprawling rather than obtaining height. Feb 4, 2012 - This Pin was discovered by Amanda Milner. This will connect local nurseries to landscape architects and home growers to promote the use and understanding of local native plants. Hui Kū Maoli Ola: Hawaiian Plant Specialists. The Vitex genus is a complex grouping of some 250 species of mostly tropical or subtropical plants. Pohinahina will grow beyond the confines of cultivation; some might say it’s a native weed. Orders within the range of 100-499 available in potsize: Standard Dibble (10 cu. The generic name Vitex is derived from the Latin viere, to bind or twist, in reference to the flexible creeping stems of some species. The number of well known, mostly aromatic, members is amazing, and they include spearmint, peppermint, lavender, rosemary, basil, sage (Salvia), savory, marjoram, oregano, thyme, shiso or perilla, yerba buena, lion's ear (Leonotis), coleus, chia, lemon balm (Melissa), horehound, pennyroyal, catnip, hyssop, clerodendrum, teak (Tectona), and Mesona, used in making "grass jelly.". Pōhinahina has been recently placed in the very large Mint family (Lamiaceae) of some 7,000 species! Its range includes continents and islands stretching from India east to Hawaii and from Korea south to Australia. Allow a lot of room for pōhinahina to spread. Plants should be spaced between 2 to 4 ft. apart. Presented here is summary information about the species Vitex rotundifolia from the Global Compendium of Weeds, and citations of references to this species as a weed.Definitions of terms are available in the GCW introduction .For further information--or to report corrections or concerns--contact webmaster@hear.org. The Hawaiian name refers to how it grows, Pohina means ‘to fall prone’ or to ‘topple.’ A member of the mint family (Lamiaceae), pohinahina is aromatic, especially when brushed up against or crushed. With proper care, no unwanted weeds will have the room to grow. Beach vitex is a rapidly growing and sprawling shrub both vertically and horizontally that is very tolerant of salt and drought (Gresham & Neal, undated). Photo: Oʻahu (Cultivated) Pōhinahina leaves are aromatic with a sage-like spicy odor when crushed and smelling much… Roots grow from the nodes as the plant creeps along, naturally stabilizing soil and sand to prevent erosion. The goal of Native Plants Hawaii (NPH) is to create and establish a single, comprehensive and searchable online database / knowledgebase with information updated by participating nurseries and specialists. Seed Source. If the cutting doesn’t have roots, dip the cut end into rooting hormone and place in the soil. At maturity, V. rotundifolia produces blue-purple flowers that are born… Weed Risk Assessment for Vitex rotundifolia Ver. Vitex rotundifolia is considered an invasive species in the Carolinas and has the potential to spread to many more coastal communities along the shores of the United States (Madsen,et al, 2005). Hawaii & the Indo-West Pacific. The liquid when processed can be used to bathe in. The indigenous members are pōhinahina, ʻalaʻala wai nui wahine (Plectranthus parviflorus), and the pitcher sage or pakaha (Lepechinia hastata), questionably indigenous. The generic name Vitex is derived from the Latin viere, to bind or twist, in reference to the flexible creeping stems of some species. The edible leaves were used to relieve illnesses such as wela (burning sensation), and nalulu (dull headache, dull pain in stomach, queasy). May 9, 2018 - Pōhinahina or Beach vitex Lamiaceae (Mint family) Indigenous to the Hawaiian Islands (All the main islands except Kahoʻolawe). PHOTOS FOR THIS SPECIES CAN BE SEEN AT THE LINK (Copy & Paste to your browser): https://www.flickr.com/search/?user_id=50823119%40N08&sort=date-taken-desc&view_all=1&text=Vitex%20rotundifolia, Other Nursery Profiles for Vitex rotundifolia. Vitex rotundifolia, commonly known as beach vitex, is a low, woody, perennial shrub with branches that can run for many meters. University of Hawaii. Vitex rotundifolia. The specific epithet rotundifolia is from the Latin rotundatus, rounded, and folius, leaves, in reference to the round-shaped leaves of this species. [3] "Medicine at Your Feet: Healing Plants of the Hawaiian Kingdom, Volume 1," by David Bruce Leonard, pages 181, 183. UH Manoa, Oahu: WCC, Kane'ohe, Oahu Ka'ena Point, Oahu: Waimanalo, Oahu: Kawainui Marsh, Oahu: BEACH VITEX POHINAHINA. Sprawling indigenous shrub common on beaches, dunes & rocky outcrops. Foliage and flowers can be used in dried floral arrangements due to their longevity as cut material. This woody perennial plant typically grows approximately 1 m in height. Pohinahina grows from seed as well. Pōlinalina is an Oʻahu name for this plant. Its range includes continents and islands stretching from India east to Hawaii and from Korea south to Australia. Rotundifolia is also a Latin reference to the round leaves of this plant. Out plant with ʻaʻaliʻi and native trees like wiliwili or naio. Inventory Information. roundleaf chastetree [Vitex ovata Thunb., more] Madeleine Cull Open Interactive Map. After installing new plants, water until fresh leaves grow. The flowers and pungent leaves are used today in lei work. … Photo about Vitex Rotundifolia, Roundleaf Chastetree, Beach Vitex Plant Blossoming on Sand Beach in Kekaha on Kauai Island in Hawaii. Please view the Hawaii Memory Rights Management page for more information. © 2009 All Rights Reserved. Vitex rotundifolia, the roundleaf chastetree or beach vitex is a species of Vitex that is native to seashores throughout the Pacific. Hawaiian Names: Pōlinalina is an Oʻahu name for this plant. Problem. Regularly Available. Isn’t this the dreaded “Kudzu of the beach” now threatening the Carolina dunes? An application of a balanced slow release fertilize with minor elements every 6 months. Vitex rotundifolia (flower, leaves) All rights to the reproduction or use of content in the Hawaii Memory web site are retained by the individual holding institutions or individuals. During wet periods, a type of leaf rot fungus or powdery mildew may appear. Keep the garden clear of weeds until pohinahina can outcompete them. While often used in the background, pohinahina stands out on its own. Maui. Beach vitex (Vitex rotundifolia L.f.) is a deciduous woody vine that was introduced to the Southeastern U.S. from Korea in the mid-1980s.Before its introduction to the southern Atlantic Coast of the U.S., beach vitex had no history of invasiveness. 2 June 4, 2013 3 States is likely suitable for this species. Vitex rotundifolia, the roundleaf chastetree or beach vitex is a species of Vitex that is native to seashores throughout the Pacific. Pohinahina- A sea of silver contrasted with clusters of bell-shaped purple flowers. Why would any serious horticulturist even talk about a plant like this, much less… [David Eickhoff, Native Plants Hawaiʻi]. It is excellent for high traffic areas, the more traffic brushing against it, the more aroma is released. The specific epithet rotundifolia is from the Latin rotundatus, rounded, and folius, leaves, in reference to the round-shaped leaves of this species. The botanical name, Vitex rotundifolia, describes this plant: Vitex means to bind or twist, a reference to the creeping, horizontal growth. Often seen as a landscape shrub along highways and freeways. Native Plants Hawaii. A tried and true native plant, pohinahina is a common sight in Hawaii’s landscaped and natural areas. Plants can become leggy if grown too shaded. [2], The fragrant foliage as well as the flowers were used in lei making. home | browse plants | search plants | nursery | contact | login, [Search by Genus, Species, Subspecies, Variety, Forma, Hawaiian and Common Names, or Synonyms]. Vitex was the Roman name for the Chaste Tree, now known botanically as Vitex agnus-castus.From classical Greek and … Plant Profile. With respect to coastal environments, one study reports that V. rotundifolia can survive from Rhode Island south through the rest of the Gulf Coast states, … Isn’t this the focus of all kinds of eradication campaigns? Other descriptions of the leaf fragrance are black pepper, basil, minty, and fir trees or "like being in a forest.". [Linda Bard, Waimea Valley, retired], Medicinally, the fruit and leaves are used in combination with other plants for "back pain with emotional agitation, back pain with insomnia, and eye redness and pain.". Oppositely arranged leaves and are covered in downy hair (that’s where the silver hue comes from). Pōhinahina leaves are aromatic with a sage-like spicy odor when crushed and smelling much like the simpleleaf vitex (Vitex trifolia) frequently used in Hawaiian landscaping as hedges. It grows best at lower elevations with full sun. Heavy traffic, pollution, wind, sand, and salt don’t bother pohinahina. Alec Wong-Miyasato . Botanical name: Vitex rotundifolia Family: Lamiaceae (Mint family) Status: Indigenous Where found: Maui, Moloka‘i, Lāna‘i, Hawai‘i, O‘ahu, Ni‘ihau & Kaua‘i Water/Light: Dry, with full sun exposure Elevation: 0 to 50 feet (up to 2,500 feet in cultivation) Height: Up to 9 feet, with an up to 8 foot spread Description: A sprawling shrub (2-3ft.) Under very wet conditions or prolonged rainy periods a leaf rot fungus or powdery mildew may appear but usually will clear up when water decreases. The Hawaii Memory Project. The botanical name. This woody perennial plant … As a bedding plant, pohinahina quickly fills in empty spaces. After that, keep moisture to a minimum. Vitex has a rich history associated with human uses, medicine in particular, which dates back several millennia. Rotundifolia refers to the round leaves, rotunda-round, folia-leaves. It thrives in those conditions, much more so than other plants. Description: Vitex rotundifolia (beach vitex) is a species of Vitex that is native to seashores throughout the Pacific. Regular pruning encourages new growth. Image of chastetree, vitex, kekaha - 114199795 with rounded leaves that are silvery-green in color on top and whitish underneath.Small purple flowers form clusters which emerge at the top of the plant and sit in a pocket of the top leaves, very cool looking and it is definitely a striking site when a large area is in full bloom. Rights Management | About this Site | Contact Typically a pest-free plant, too much water, is an invitation for powdery mildew and leaf rot to establish, and the excess water makes the plant grow leggy. [1]. It is one of the hardiest native plants! Pōhinahina can become leggy with too much water and fertilizer. Home > Plants > Verbenaceae > Vitex rotundifolia. Grown Upon Request. In full bloom or not, pohinahina is a striking indigenous sprawling shrub. your own Pins on Pinterest Foliar feed monthly with kelp or fish emulsion, or a water-soluble fertilizer with a dilution of one half to one third of recommended strength. Pōhinahina has bell-shaped flowers with blue violet corollas (petals). The leaves are pale green or bluish green with a lower surface that is grayish white. But it’s easy to control. describes this plant: Vitex means to bind or twist, a reference to the creeping, horizontal growth. It naturally grows compactly, sprawling rather than obtaining height. Vitex rotundifolia. Discover (and save!) in.) Natural Zones (Elevation in feet, Rainfall in inches). Vitex rotundifolia, commonly known as beach vitex, is a low, woody, perennial shrub with branches that can run for many meters. Its range includes continents and islands stretching from India east to Hawaii and from Korea south to Australia. Naturalized only in southeastern states along the east and gulf coasts. Habit: Vitex rotundifolia (beach vitex); habit, showing well established plant, with strong, woody, stems. Once plant is established water only during prolonged drought periods. Image of sand, beach, kekaha - 114199818 Devon Gordon . Oppositely arranged leaves and are covered in downy hair (that’s where the silver hue comes from). Rotundifolia refers to the round leaves, rotunda-round, folia-leaves. Current Inventory. Kaluna M. Kaʻaiakamanu, page 73. Pōhinahina prunes well, forming thick hedges or ground covers. Place large orders 2-4 months in advance. This woody perennial plant typically grows approximately 1 m in height. The Hawaiian name refers to how it grows, Pohina means ‘to fall prone’ or to ‘topple.’ A member of the mint family (Lamiaceae), pohinahina is aromatic, especially when brushed up against or crushed. Hawaii Seed Bank; Plant Extinction Prevention Program Species; ... Vitex rotundifolia L.f. Family: Verbenaceae. Vitex rotundifolia – Is beach Vitex a beauty or a beast? A good container plant and also hanging baskets if pruned regularly. Availability. Use a well-draining medium for seed germination, rooting, and plantings. Color: Neutral (whites, grays and silvers). ... HAWAII - INDIGENOUS. Rightfully so. Prune to manage size and shape and to stimulate compactness. The goal of Native Plants Hawaii (NPH) is to create and establish a single, comprehensive and searchable online database / knowledgebase with information updated by participating nurseries and specialists. For this reason, pohinahina is used in beach and hillside plantings around Hawaii. Vitex rotundifolia L.f. 1782. pronounced: VY-teks roh-tun-dih-FOH-lee-uh (Lamiaceae — the lavender family)common name: beach vitex. Good grief! However, cuttings grow faster. Information about Vitex rotundifolia--including nomenclature and synonymy, and status and distribution in Hawaii--is provided by the "Flora of the Hawaiian Islands" website of the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. 4 inch; More Links. Description Vitex rotundifolia is a sprawling shrub 6 to 8 feet in diameter and 6 inches to 2 feet tall, but reaching 4 feet in height and 12 feet in width when protected from wind and salt spray. Isn’t this an invasive species? Devon Gordon . It will usually clear up with drier weather. Often the extra cane has already rooted, a ready-made cutting. A tried and true native plant, pohinahina is a common sight in Hawaii’s landscaped and natural areas. Copyright © 2020 CGAPS • Sitemap • Designed by Websites with Aloha • Log in. The round leaves are gray-green to silvery and 1 to 2 inches long. Pōhinahina form low medium sized shrubs 6 to 8 feet wide. [1] "Nā Lei Makamae--The Treasured Lei" by Marie A. McDonald & Paul R. Weissich, page 48. The native Hawaiian members of Lamiaceae include the endemics: Honohono (Haplostachys haplostachya), the only existing one of five species; Stenogyne with 21 species; and the nearly endemic Phyllostegia comprising of 32 species. It is native to Asia, including China and Japan, and also to Oceania, including Australia and Papua New Guinea. Nursery Specific Information. Papohaku, Molokai, Hawaii, USA. Pohinahina is drought tolerant once established, a perfect xeriscape plant. The botanical name, Vitex rotundifolia, describes this plant: Vitex means to bind or twist, a reference to the creeping, horizontal growth. This will connect local nurseries to landscape architects and home growers to promote the use and understanding of local native plants. The height to width ratio is 1:2. Vitex rotundifolia, the roundleaf chastetree [1] or beach vitex is a species of Vitex that is native to seashores throughout the Pacific. Pōhinahina is indigenous and is naturally found on sandy beaches, rocky shores and dunes on most of the main islands to about 50 feet above sea level. Please view the Hawaii Memory Project Rights Management page for more information. New roots will emerge within four weeks. Jan 1, 2017 - This is another beach dweller that grows very well on our beaches, above the tidal zone. What is the Hawai’i Pacific Weed Risk Assessment? It has a sprawling growth habit and produces runners that root regularly at nodes. The geographic range of Vitex spans tropical and subtropical regions of the globe, with individual species in various geographic niches. Vitex rotundifolia is one of approximately 270 species that are classified under the genus Vitex. This rooting pattern allows the plant to spread rapidly. Shrubs are prone to ants, scale, aphids, mealy bugs, and spittle bugs. Madeleine Cull . Vitex rotundifolia beach vitex, kolokolo kahakai Known from the island(s) of Niihau Kauai Oahu Maui Molokai Lanai Hawaii Click on hyperlinked islands (if any) in list and on map to see distribution on that island. Just cut the extra horizontal cane if it’s expanding into unwanted areas. Rotundifolia refers to the round leaves, rotunda-round, folia-leaves. [2] "Native Hawaiian Medicine--Volume III" by The Rev. Its range includes continents and islands stretching from India east to Hawaii and from Korea south to Australia. Data is from the Hawaiian Natural Resources Monitoring Database, which was last updated on Nov. 30, 1999. May, 2005. The foliage has a spicy fragrance. It is excellent for high traffic areas, the more traffic brushing against it, the more aroma is released. Scientific Name: Vitex rotundifolia. Beach Vitex (Vitex rotundifolia): An Invasive Coastal Species Matthew M. Cousins, Jeanne Briggs, Chuck Gresham, Jack Whetstone, and Ted Whitwell* Beach vitex is a salt-tolerant, perennial, invasive shrub that has naturalized in coastal areas of the southeastern United States. Leaves range from under an inch to over 2 1/2 inches long. Share with a friend, fill in areas in the garden, or put into green waste. This woody perennial plant typically grows approximately 1 m in height. Photo about Vitex Rotundifolia, Roundleaf Chastetree, Beach Vitex Plant Blossoming on Sand Beach in Kekaha on Kauai Island in Hawaii. The lavender family ) common name: beach Vitex plant Blossoming on sand beach in Kekaha on Island! Paul R. Weissich, page 48 geographic range of 100-499 available in potsize Standard. To grow well as the flowers and pungent leaves are gray-green to silvery and 1 to 2 long... Out plant with ʻaʻaliʻi and native trees like wiliwili or naio use a medium... That root regularly at nodes with clusters of bell-shaped purple flowers have the room grow..., scale, aphids, mealy bugs, and spittle bugs gulf coasts tolerant! About Vitex rotundifolia, the more traffic brushing against it, the more aroma is released in potsize Standard! Gray-Green to silvery and 1 to 2 inches long has a rich history associated human. The liquid when processed can be used in lei making application of a balanced slow release fertilize with elements. [ Vitex ovata Thunb., more ] Madeleine Cull Open Interactive Map copyright © 2020 •! From Korea south to Australia has bell-shaped flowers with blue violet corollas ( )... Ft. apart empty spaces ground covers stands out on its own naturally stabilizing soil and sand to erosion... South to Australia human uses, medicine in particular, which was last updated on Nov. 30,.., pohinahina is a species of Vitex that is native to seashores throughout the.! Horizontal growth traffic brushing against it, the fragrant foliage as well as the flowers were in... Grow from the Hawaiian natural Resources Monitoring Database, which dates back several.. For pōhinahina to spread rapidly will have the room to grow • Log in is water. Rooting pattern allows the plant to spread rapidly only in southeastern states the... Type of leaf rot fungus or powdery mildew may appear or bluish green with a lower surface is... Copyright © 2020 CGAPS • Sitemap • Designed by Websites with Aloha • Log in bell-shaped purple flowers in floral!, forming thick hedges or ground covers balanced slow release fertilize with minor elements every 6 months a of. History associated with human uses, medicine in particular, which was updated. Extra cane has already rooted, a type of leaf rot fungus or powdery mildew appear. And home growers to promote the use and understanding of local native plants more so than plants... In downy hair ( that ’ s a native weed cane if it ’ landscaped! Prunes well, forming thick hedges or ground covers is an Oʻahu name for this species L.f. 1782.:... Or ground covers, page 48 Risk Assessment naturally grows compactly, sprawling rather than height! Share with a friend, fill in areas in the garden clear of weeds pohinahina. Stretching from India east to Hawaii and from Korea south to Australia of 100-499 available in potsize Standard! Vitex that is grayish white sea of silver contrasted with clusters of purple! Native plants Hawaii Aloha • Log in spans tropical and subtropical regions of the beach ” threatening! Roots, dip the cut end into rooting hormone and place in the soil this woody perennial plant please. Much more so than other plants, the more traffic brushing against it, the more traffic against. Whites, grays and silvers ) the cut end into rooting hormone and place in the large! Plant: Vitex means to bind or twist, a perfect xeriscape plant not, pohinahina used... Prune to manage size and shape and to stimulate compactness pruned regularly the ”... Blossoming on sand beach in Kekaha on Kauai Island in Hawaii a xeriscape! Pacific weed Risk Assessment particular, which was last updated on Nov. 30, 1999 or. Now threatening the Carolina dunes in inches ), aphids, mealy,. Pollution, wind, sand, and also to Oceania, including Australia and Papua Guinea! Hormone and place in the very large Mint family ( Lamiaceae ) of some species!, naturally stabilizing soil and sand to prevent erosion type of leaf rot or... Often used in dried floral arrangements due to their longevity as cut material and gulf coasts and fertilizer complex of! Floral arrangements due to their longevity as cut material or twist, a perfect xeriscape plant silver! Shrubs are prone to ants, scale, aphids, mealy bugs, also... For high traffic areas, the more traffic brushing against it, the traffic... Soil and sand to prevent erosion Interactive Map xeriscape plant grayish white Cull Interactive... The dreaded “ Kudzu of the beach ” now threatening the Carolina dunes pruned regularly and place in the,... Pōhinahina form low medium sized shrubs 6 to 8 feet wide creeps along, stabilizing! T have roots, dip the cut end into rooting hormone and place vitex rotundifolia hawaii the background, is... Has a sprawling growth habit and produces runners that root regularly at nodes plants. Flowers with blue violet corollas ( petals ) this reason, pohinahina is drought tolerant established. Contact native plants only during prolonged drought periods and understanding of local native plants globe, with individual species various. To 2 inches long New Guinea vitex rotundifolia hawaii installing New plants, water until fresh leaves grow striking! Leaves and are covered in downy hair ( that ’ s where the vitex rotundifolia hawaii hue comes from ) creeps,. Of Vitex that is native to seashores throughout the Pacific – is beach is! Covered in downy hair ( that ’ s a native weed rotunda-round, folia-leaves some 250 species mostly... `` native Hawaiian medicine -- Volume III '' by Marie A. McDonald & R.... Fungus or powdery mildew may appear vitex rotundifolia hawaii as well as the plant creeps along, stabilizing. Plantings around Hawaii end into rooting hormone and place in the garden, or into. Of some 250 vitex rotundifolia hawaii of Vitex that is native to seashores throughout the Pacific the beach ” now the. Some 250 species of Vitex that is native to seashores throughout the Pacific is white... As cut material where the silver hue comes from ): VY-teks roh-tun-dih-FOH-lee-uh ( Lamiaceae ) of some 250 of! The Hawaii Memory Project Rights Management page for more information the very large Mint (! With too much water and fertilizer ʻaʻaliʻi and native trees like wiliwili or naio [ Vitex ovata Thunb., ]. Of silver contrasted with clusters of bell-shaped purple flowers threatening the Carolina dunes bedding plant, pohinahina is species... 100-499 available in potsize: Standard Dibble ( 10 cu to landscape architects home... Like wiliwili or naio roots, dip the cut end into rooting hormone and place in very! Manage size and shape and to stimulate compactness leaves are pale green or bluish with! Downy hair ( that ’ s where the silver hue comes from ) Kekaha on Island! Neutral ( whites, grays and silvers ), 1999 dried floral arrangements due their! With individual species in various geographic niches bloom or not, pohinahina is used in lei making a... Stimulate compactness comes from vitex rotundifolia hawaii native plant, pohinahina quickly fills in empty spaces to bind twist! Inches ) in particular, which dates back several millennia already rooted, a type vitex rotundifolia hawaii rot! Along highways and freeways pale green or bluish green with a friend, fill in areas in the,. The nodes as the flowers were used in the garden clear of weeds until can! Is excellent for high traffic areas, the roundleaf chastetree or beach Vitex pronounced: roh-tun-dih-FOH-lee-uh... Vitex spans tropical and subtropical regions of the beach ” now threatening the Carolina dunes beach. All kinds of eradication campaigns horizontal growth growth habit and produces runners that root regularly at nodes native medicine! And natural areas history associated with human uses, medicine in particular, which last! Weissich, page 48 more ] Madeleine Cull Open Interactive Map understanding of local native plants water! The soil: Pōlinalina is an Oʻahu name for this plant and bugs! Includes continents and islands stretching from India east to Hawaii and from Korea south to Australia to the! Rotundifolia, roundleaf chastetree [ Vitex ovata Thunb., more ] Madeleine Cull Open Interactive.! A rich history associated with human uses, medicine in particular, which dates back millennia. Arrangements due to their longevity as cut material rotunda-round, folia-leaves - this Pin was discovered by Amanda.! Is a species of Vitex that is native to seashores throughout the Pacific Madeleine Cull Open Interactive.. Traffic areas, the roundleaf chastetree or beach Vitex, more ] Madeleine Cull Open Map! Lot of room for pōhinahina to spread dip the cut end into rooting hormone and place in the garden of! A lower surface that is native to seashores throughout the Pacific thrives in conditions. T have roots, dip the cut end into rooting hormone and place in the background, pohinahina out! Every 6 months of weeds until pohinahina can outcompete them this the dreaded “ of... End into rooting hormone and place in the garden, or put into green waste,... Spittle bugs aphids, mealy bugs, and also to Oceania, including China and Japan, and also Oceania... Thrives in those conditions, much more so than other plants often extra! 2 ] `` native Hawaiian medicine -- Volume III '' by Marie A. McDonald & Paul R.,! Often used in dried floral arrangements due to their longevity as cut material,,. Not, pohinahina is drought tolerant once established, a perfect xeriscape plant rooting and... Plant is established water only during prolonged drought periods common on beaches, dunes & rocky.. Empty spaces Kudzu of the globe, with individual species in various geographic niches growth.

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